Tag: philosophy

Kabir and Language

Kabir
Image from Wikipedia

Yesterday, I went to a concert of songs belonging to the tradition of a 15th century saint-poet called Kabir, and came across a very interesting song that he is said to have composed.

It went something like this.

The cow was milked

Before the calf was born

But after I sold the curd in the market

and this:

The ant went to its wedding

Carrying a gallon of oil

And an elephant and a camel under its arms

From the perspective of natural language processing and machine learning, the incongruous situations depicted in these poems turn out having an interesting pattern in them, as I will explain below.

I found more examples of Kabir’s “inverted verses” online.

The poems at http://www.sriviliveshere.com/mapping-ulat-bansi.html come with beautiful illustrations as well.

Here are a few more lines from Kabir’s inverted verse:

A tree stands without roots

A tree bears fruit without flowers

Someone dances without feet

Someone plays music without hands

Someone sings without a tongue

Water catches fire

Someone sees with blind eyes

A cow eats a lion

A deer eats a cheetah

A crow pounces on a falcon

A quail pounces on a hawk

A mouse eats a cat

A dog eats a jackal

A frog eats snakes

What’s interesting about all of these is that they’re examples of entity-relationships that are false.

Let me first explain what entities and relationships are.

Entities are the real or conceptual objects that we perceive as existing in the world we live in.  They are usually described using a noun phrase and qualified using an adjective.

Relationships are the functions that apply to an ordered list of entities and return a true or false value.

For example, if you take the sentence “The hunter hunts the fox,” there are two entities (1. the hunter, 2. the fox).  The relationship is “hunts”, it returns true for the two entities presented in that order.

The relationship “hunts” would return false if the entities were inverted (as in 1. the fox and 2. the hunter … as in the sentence “The fox hunts the hunter”).

The relationship and the entity can be stored in a database and hence can be considered as the structured form of an unstructured plain-language utterance.

In fact it is entities and relationships such as these that it was speculated would some day make up the semantic web.

Most of Kabir’s inverted verse seems to be based on examples of false entity relationships of dual arity (involving two entities), and that often, there is a violation of entity order which causes the entity function to return the value false.

In the “cow was milked” song, the relationship that is violated is the temporal relationship: “takes place before”.

In the “ant’s wedding” song, the relationship that is violated is that of capability: “can do”.

In the rest of the examples, relationships like “eats”, “hunts”, “plays”, “dances”, “bears fruit”, etc., are violated.

Other Commentary

In Osho’s “The Revolution”, he talks about Kabir’s interest in and distrust of language, quoting the poet as saying:

I HAVE BEEN THINKING OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WATER

AND THE WAVES ON IT. RISING,

WATER’S STILL WATER, FALLING BACK,

IT IS WATER. WILL YOU GIVE ME A HINT

HOW TO TELL THEM APART?

BECAUSE SOMEONE HAS MADE UP THE WORD ‘WAVE’,

DO I HAVE TO DISTINGUISH IT FROM ‘WATER’?

And Osho concludes with:

Kabir is not interested in giving you any answers — because he knows perfectly well there is no answer. The game of question and answers is just a game — not that Kabir was not answering his disciples’ questions; he was answering, but answering playfully. That quality you have to remember. He is not a serious man; no wise man can ever be serious. Seriousness is part of ignorance, seriousness is a shadow of the ego. The wise is always non-serious. There can be no serious answers to questions, not at least with Kabir — because he does not believe that there is any meaning in life, and he does not believe that you have to stand aloof from life to observe and to find the meaning. He believes in participation. He does not want you to become a spectator, a speculator, a philosopher.

Notes

This genre of verse seems to have been a tradition in folk religious movements in North India.  In “The Tenth Rasa: An Anthology of Indian Nonsense” by Michael Heyman, Sumanya Satpathy and Anushka Ravishankar, they talk about Namdev, a 13th century saint-poet as having authored such verses as well.

Ruminations on Consciousness

descartes_mind_and_body
Descartes’ illustration of the mind-body problem

There is an interesting unanswered question that humanity still hasn’t managed to put to rest, and it is:

“What is consciousness?”

Is human consciousness magical or mechanical?

Is there some magical thing called a soul in all animals that makes us who we are, drives our actions and makes us conscious of the world around us?

Various religious traditions have different explanations for consciousness.

Traditional Hypothesis

Semitic traditions – Judaism, Islam and Christianity – don’t talk much about consciousness but they have an implicit position on the subject.  On the other hand, Hindu philosophical traditions talk explicitly about it, and the following are some of the more well-known philosophical positions:

  1. a) Advaita – the consciousness of creatures on earth is essentially the same as that of the divine.
  2. b) Dvaita – there are two kinds of consciousness – that of earthly creatures and that of the divine.
  3. c) Vishishtadvaita – there are two kinds of consciousness – earthly and divine – and the former can become one with the latter.

So, Hindu philosophies take one of the following positions:

Dvaita:

phil_dvaita

The earthly consciousness is singular from the point of view of the individual.  Each person (and in some traditions each animal) is believed to have one.

Advaita:

phil_advaita

The view of all Semitic religions, though not explicitly stated, seems to be closer to that of Dvaita philosophy, in that souls are considered distinct entities from the gods (after death, these souls end up in a good place or a bad place for a long time).

I say gods in plural because all Semitic religions seem to believe in the existence of a good divine being and an evil divine being (satan/shaitan/iblees) who is different from the good divine being and not fully subject to him (which is different from Hindu philosophies where the concept of an absolutely bad/evil divine being doesn’t seem to exist).

phil_semitic

So, there are two or more (if you count the lesser divine beings called angels, jinns, etc) divine consciousnesses in Judaism, Islam or Christianity.

Judeo-Christian Beliefs

In Judeo-Christian literature, for example, a text about a man called Job deals with this concept of a bad divine being.  The Wikipedia says: “Between Job 1:9–10 and 2:4–5, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want, so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job’s faith would collapse if all he has been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission to test Job.”  There are also in this belief system conceptions of other divine beings: a holy trinity, a pantheon of angels, etc.

Islamic Beliefs

In an account by al-Tabari, a 9th century scholar, the prophet Muhammad is described as having endorsed in verse three dieties of the Kaaba other than Al-Lah at one point (they were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat), and later withdrawn the endorsement with the explanation that Satan (who in Islamic theology is believed to have only the power to put ideas into people’s minds) had made him do it.  The verses endorsing these other deities (later withdrawn) are referred to in some places as the Satanic Verses (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satanic_Verses).

All the above religious belief systems imagine one single soul as resident in each living thing on earth.

However, in the Baha’i faith, it appears that there is a concept of a good and an evil side in each living thing, though possibly not as two consciousnesses.  Abdu’l-Bahá is supposed to have said: “This lower nature in man is symbolized as Satan — the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside.”

In fiction, there have been imaginings of more than one conscious ‘soul’ being resident in a human.

Take the tale of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.  In it, the character of Jekyll/Hyde is described as having two consciousnesses, one good and one bad – each akin to one of the principal divine beings in Semitic religions.

phil_jekyll_hyde.png

So, in Jekyll/Hyde’s world, there is a multiplicity of consciousnesses, not just in the divine plane, but also on earth.

Extrapolation

So, it appears that we can imagine multiple divine beings in existence, and multiple consciousnesses existing in each of us.  We can also imagine a single divine being in existence, and a single conscious soul.  We can even imagine the earthly soul/consciousness being the same as the divine soul/consciousness.

The obvious question is:  can we imagine the absence of the magical soul since we can imagine the absence of a divine being (atheistic belief systems have existed since times immemorial)?

One of the reasons for postulating the existence of divine beings is that they give us a way of explaining inexplicable phenomena.  In antiquity, when humans needed to explain thunder and tides, they imagined thunder gods and sea gods.  Later, when they became better able to explain (or at least to be conscious of unchangeable patterns in and to fend against) nature, they began to adopt more abstract conceptions of deities that reflected human consciousness, and where the religious traditions served to provide an explanation for the phenomenon of life, and an ethical framework for reasoning during the period of life.

Once the creation of living things could be explained, and social contracts became things one could reason about, humans seem to have found it easier to surmise that no gods were needed to explain creation, life and ethical values.

Similarly, as we become better able to explain how our minds work, and to understand perception, memory, cognition and language, and also phenomena such as hallucination and mental illnesses, beliefs in magical phenomena such as spirits taking possession of individuals have begun to diminish.

By extrapolation, one might suppose that with time, the belief in an immortal soul will also diminish.

Alternative Hypothesis

What is likely to replace the concept of a magical soul in all living things?

One of the modern theories of consciousness (according to David Chalmers) seems to be that the mind and the brain are one (see the mind-brain identity theory of 1950 mentioned in http://consc.net/papers/five.pdf).

However, since the brain itself is little understood, we’d merely be explaining something we don’t understand using something that we don’t understand (though we’d be seeing it as something physical).

It seems to me that it might be better to explain our consciousness to ourselves in terms of how computers do the things that we are conscious of doing, since computers are well-understood.

It appears that a definition of consciousness as:  “the ability to perceive the world, form a model of the world (including imagined worlds), retain a memory of the perceptions and models, reason independently about those models, and optionally, to act on the perceptions” would be accurate.

So any machine could be considered conscious if it is able to perceive the world, form a model of the world (including imagined worlds), retain a memory of the perceptions and models, reason independently about those models, and optionally act on the perceptions.

There are already theories that seem to come close to the above definition.  They are called Representationalist Theories.  And many of them, interestingly, seem to have been developed only in the last 20 years: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness/#RepThe

Here are some other discussions of the aforesaid theories:

  1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-representational/
  2. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qualia/

A concept such as qualia (see preceding link), which seems so troubling to a representationalist philosopher, would appear trivial to someone well-versed in machine learning, because in machine learning, we already have names for concepts that go beyond these, such as features and models.

So it seems to me at first glance that representationalist theories of consciousness with the addition of concepts from machine learning can adequately explain consciousness in all animals.

Buddhist Philosophy

Now, it turns out that this alternative hypothesis that there is no soul is not such a recent supposition.  It seems to have appeared a long time ago.

In fact, it formed a central tenet of another Indian religion – Buddhism.

In Buddhism the concept of the non-existence of the soul is called Anatta from an (not, without) and attā (soul).

So, it appears that in one Indian philosophical tradition, there is no place for the supernatural consciousness.

anatta

Consequences and More Questions

The consequences of reducing the being/soul/consciousness to a mechanical process would be very interesting.

If, we accept the above definition, we would have to think of humans as computers, because if human perceptions of the physical world are nothing more than a mental model of the same, then an electronic model of the world in a computer or a physical model in a mechanical device would also qualify as consciousness of the world.

Can we say that a computer or a mechanical model is conscious of the world in the same way that we are?

If we go with the theory that we have no magical soul, then the only alternative that remains is to accept that if a physical representation of the world can be created of its own volition by a machine that can also reason about it, then the machine is also conscious of the world.  In other words, our consciousness would have to be accepted as consisting of nothing more than our memories of the world we perceive and the models we create in our minds, and our ability to think about and reason over them.  Anything that can similarly perceive, model and remember things would have to be considered as possessing consciousness, leading to other interesting questions such as:  are humans machines, is ‘consciousness’ = ‘life’, can we have consciousness without life, and finally,  what is life?

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In trust we god

in_trust_we_god

Can trust affect the outcome of political events (war), business transactions (pricing) and economic affairs (poverty)?

This is a problem that I’ve been very interested in for many years.

A few years ago I came across papers in economics and game theory that supplied the mathematical tools that we need to analyse such problems.

So, I’ll take each area of interest 1) politics 2) business and 3) economics and explain how trust matters in each case.

1.  Politics

Can the outcome of something like war be determined by trust?

Let’s assume an army of 2 soldiers.

In a war, the benefits to each soldier can be modeled as a bi-matrix (normal-form game) as follows:

soldier 2 fights soldier 2 flees
soldier 1 fights 5, 5
–5, 0
soldier 1 flees 0, -5
0, 0
Normal form or payoff matrix of a 2-player, 2-strategy game

The first of the two numbers in the matrix represents the payoff to soldier 1.

The second of the two numbers in the matrix represents the payoff to soldier 2.

(The soldiers win something (represented by 5 points) if their army wins; they win nothing if their army loses; and they lose their life (represented by -5 points) if they do not flee and their army loses; we assume the army wins if both soldiers do not flee and loses if one or both flee).

If soldier 1 trusts soldier 2 not to flee the battlefield, the best strategy for soldier 1 is to stay and fight as well (since he will then get more benefits than if he flees).

If soldier 1 does not trust soldier 2 to stay on the battlefield (if he suspects that soldier 2 will run away), then the best strategy for soldier 1 is to run away himself (so that he does not remain on the battlefield and get killed).

So, this model shows that if two equal 2 man armies meet on a battlefield, the one whose soldiers trust each other more will win.

2.  Business (Pricing)

There is a very interesting paper by George A. Akerlof (‘The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism’).

It tries to explain why the price of a new car in a show room is so much higher than the price of a new car in the second-hand car market.

For example, a car costing $25,000 fresh out of the showroom, might fetch $18,000 if sold as a used car in the used car market.

Akerlof’s paper tries to explain why the price dropped so sharply.

Akerlof suggests that the price drop is a result of the uncertainty surrounding the quality of the car in the used-car market.

A certain percentage of cars in a used-car market will be defective (since anyone can sell a car in an unregulated market, and unscrupulous people would have put defective cars up for sale).

Let’s say 50% of the cars in the used car market are defective.

Now, a person buying a used car a day old will only be prepared to risk paying 50% of the showroom price for the car (because of the 50% chance that the car is worth nothing).

The Price of Trust

This result has the following unintended consequence:

The more a person trusts a seller, the higher the price he will be willing to offer for a car.

I’ll give you an example of that.  (I’m sorry, but this is a bit racist).

When I was a student in North Carolina, and I was looking to buy a used car, I was given the following piece of advice by my fellow students.

They said, “Go for a car that an American is selling because they will tell you about any problems that it has.  Don’t buy a car from an Asian or an Indian unless you know them well.  They won’t tell you if there are any problems.”

I see the same effect even when doing business in India today – a lot of business happens through connections.

Price Sensitivity

It might also explain why Indians are so price sensitive.

Indians are said to be very price-sensitive, preferring the less expensive offerings over more expensive ones that promise better quality (I recall Richard Branson said that at one point while explaining why he didn’t want to enter India).

I think the price sensitivity is a result of Indians not being able to trust promises of higher quality from their countrymen.

Price becomes the only measure that Indian buyers are able to trust to when making a purchasing decision, leading to extreme price-sensitivity in the Indian market.

Hiring and ‘Brain Drain’

Even in hiring, this can have the effect of driving down salaries.

When hiring someone, an Indian firm is likely to offer a lower salary than the market, because they don’t trust in the abilities of the person being hired.

In Akerlof’s paper, he talks about a side-effect of a lack of trust.  He says that good quality cars will just stop being sold on the low-trust markets.

The applies to the job market in India as well:  Indian firms tend to offer lower salaries, which might lead to the best engineers choosing MNCs over Indian firms or leaving Indian shores altogether.

3.  Economics

I’ve described in an earlier blog how man-in-the-middle systems of government can fail to work efficiently if the man-in-the-middle is corrupt.

I’ve described in that post how resources can be wrongly allocated in the presence of corruption.

https://aiaioo.wordpress.com/2013/08/15/who-betrayed-ekalavya-2/

The result of an inefficient allocation of our resources is poverty.

For example, the Indian government has tripled defence spending in the last 10 years – through heavy borrowing – when it is possible to show that we need to allocate whatever money we have to education (see our arguments for that https://aiaioo.wordpress.com/2012/06/04/algorithms-to-combat-poverty/).

World Bank studies (that you can get off an Indian Reserve Bank website) show that corrupt governments spend more on arms (because of how easy it is to hide kickbacks from arms deals) than honest governments.

So, the economic prosperity of a country can be impacted by corruption.

Causes of Corruption

But we can ask a deeper question:  “What causes corruption?”

I’ll try to show right here that it is a lack of trust.

Take for example two players in a bidding war (let’s say that they are bidding for a government contract).

Each has the choice to give a bribe or not to give a bribe.

Player 1 is more likely to give a bribe if player 1 does not trust player 2 to not offer a bribe to the government official.

It’s the same decision matrix that I have used for the case of the 2 soldier army.

So you get it?

Everything depends on trust.

Philosophy

I am probably way out of my depth on this, but the ancient Greeks seem to have had two views on the supreme ideal that man should strive for.

According to the Wikipedia article on Dialectics:

“The Sophists taught arête (Greek: ἀρετή, qualityexcellence) as the highest value, and the determinant of one’s actions in life.”

But there lived in Greece a man who disagreed with that notion:  ”Socrates favoured truth as the highest value, proposing that it could be discovered through reason and logic in discussion: ergo, dialectic.”

But the above models seem to suggest that truth (honesty) results in trust (you know that the guy next to you is honest and won’t lie about the quality of a car or bribe a government official to get ahead of you).

And what the Akerlof paper shows is that trust rewards and promotes quality.

In other words, the two Greek concepts of quality (of the values mankind must uphold for its own good) are probably one and the same.

Related Posts:

1.  Framework for evaluating values

2.  What traffic can reveal about society

3.  Who betrayed Ekalavya?

4.  Can economics change the world?

5.  Is there an algorithm to combat poverty?

6.  Why dance is undervalued

7.  Is 5 very far from 4?

Related Far-out Posts:

1.  Splitting the Truth into Precision and Recall

2.  Does AI have Buddha nature?

[The image in this picture was taken from a circulated Facebook post.  The copyright owner of the image is unknown at this time and if anyone knows him/her I’d like to make sure they’re ok with my using the image and acknowledge them].

What game theory says about why gas stations are built next to each other

This lovely video tells you about the concept of a Socially Optimal Solution – a solution that works very well for society – and why such solutions are often not stable.

It also explains the concept of a Nash Equilibrium – a solution that is stable, but not always optimal for society.

It also tells you how aggressive competition can lead to results that are not optimal for society.