In the post “Intent on Intentions”, I’d talked a bit about the Speech Act Theory of Searle and Winograd.
In this blog post, I’d like to look at all other utterances. What purpose do utterances have if they are meaningful, but are not a Speech Act?
It turns out that meaningful utterances that do not convey Speech Acts, typically convey information. Information in turn comes in two flavours – events and facts. Facts represent states of the world (they describe relations between entities or describe properties of entities). Events represent changes.
For example, “London is in England” is a fact, whereas “London Bridge is falling down” is an event.
Entities are the things being talked about. In the sentences used to illustrate events and facts above, the following entities may be observed: “London”, “England” and “London Bridge”.
The distinction between intentions, events and facts is not watertight. There are times when utterances can cross the boundaries and fall into more than one of these categories.
Interestingly, there are different uses for the three kinds of text analysis (analysis of intention, analysis of events, and analysis of fact) and types of data that they may be applied to.
- Event Analysis: News articles, because news
reports are always about important happenings or changes in the state of the world, and
hence are rich with events and also with facts.
- Fact Analysis: Wikipedia, other Encyclopedias and Knowledge Bases are full of facts,
but don’t necessarily report current events.
They may contain information on events that
took place in another age.
- Intention Analysis: Emails Messages, Customer Feedback, Social
- Event Analysis: Media Monitoring Tools,
Opportunity Identiﬁcation Tools, Conformance and Discovery Tools
- Fact Analysis: Enterprise Search, Semantic
Web, Logic and Inference Engines
- Intention Analysis: CRM Tools, Collaboration Tools, Task Management Tools, Communication Devices
Here is a link to a whitepaper on the topic of doing a 360 degree analysis of text.